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Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application / Erik Flügel. View the summary of this work. Bookmark: haiwingbasoftdif.cf Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks: Analysis, Interpretation and Application book download Erik Fl?gel Download Microfacies of Carbonate. 2. Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks: Analysis, Interpretation by Erik Flügel. Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks: Analysis, Interpretation and Application.
The change in shape of test of the larger perforate The main components of this facies are bryozoa, foraminifera with depth has been documented in the corallinacean red algae, fragments of echinoids and Cenozoic carbonate successions Geel ; Beavington- bivalve shells.
Additional components are benthic Penney and Racey ; Nebelsick et al.
The relatively high degree of Grains are poorly sorted and are medium to coarse fragmentation of the larger foraminifera points to sand to granule in size. Interpretation Microfacies H The presence of Miogypsina, Elphidium, debris of Lepidocyclinid, nummulitids, bioclast, bryozoa packstone corallinacea and echinoids, as well as the stratigraphic Figure 5 B.
This facies is represented by packstone with position, indicates that this facies was formed in an open perforate benthic foraminifera Nummulitidae and Lepi- marine middle shelf environment under normal marine docyclinidae. The foraminifera are characterised by a salinity conditions with open water circulation and relatively diverse assemblage of nummulitids Operculina, medium hydrodynamic energy Amirshahkarami et al. Heterestegina and Spiroclypeous and lepidocyclinids a; Amirshahkarami The grainy texture and the Eulepidina and Nephrolepidina.
Grains are coarse sand fragmented fauna suggest a relatively high-energy to granule size and are in a finer grained carbonate matrix.
A Microfacies G: Nummulitids, bryozoa bioclast packstone sample no. Q 50 , C Microfacies I: Bioclast, bryozoa coralline red algal rudstone sample no. Q 70 , D Microfacies I: Bioclast, bryozoa coralline red algal rudstone sample no.
Q , E Microfacies J: Bioclast, bryozoa floatstone sample no. Q , F Microfacies J: Bioclast, bryozoa wackestone sample no. Interpretation Interpretation The combination of micritic matrix and abundance of The coralline red algal facies represents algal production typical open marine skeletal fauna including bryozoans, on the distal middle shelf Brachert et al.
Coralline red algae thrive where nutrient levels are low —medium energy, open marine environment, and elevated Bassi ; Halfar and Mutti and light between the storm wave base and FWWB for deposition of penetration is reduced Halfar and Mutti This facies this microfacies Wilson ; Pomar a; Romero et al.
The presence of a. According to the nutrient limitation model of nummulitids and lepidocyclinids allowed us to interpret Wood , the coralline-dominated facies may be this facies as having been deposited in the lower indicative of mesotrophic condition. The facies is typified by the dominance of Bioclast, bryozoa wackestone — packstone — floatstone non-geniculate coralline red algae.
Rhodoliths and Figure 5 E —G. The main components of MF J are bryozoa commonly occur within this facies. The other bryozoa and bivalve fragments.
Associate bioclast subordinate component is echinoid debris. The textures are includes echinoid particles. This facies is characterised floatstone —rudstone. Historical Biology 7 Figure 6. A Microboring of coralline red algae, B Micritisation of coralline red algae. Both show nutrient enrichment in the system. Interpretation gradients. Restricted shallow subtidal environments of This facies is formed in an open marine environment under deposition are characterised by low-diversity benthic normal marine salinity conditions with open water foraminiferal assemblages Microfacies A, B, C and D.
Evidence The foraminiferal associations are commonly represented for this interpretation includes abundant open marine by imperforated foraminifera. They were the best-adapted skeletal fauna and stratigraphic position. This facies shows fauna to the paleoenvironmental conditions such as a wide distribution throughout the study area. It is low turbidity, highlight intensity and low-substrate Downloaded By: [Monash University] At: 9 June suggested that the proximal outer ramp facies of the stability in meso-to-oligotrophic settings, at shallow investigated area is dominated by heterozoan skeletons depths Reiss and Hottinger ; Hallock ; Buxton Brachert et al.
Corda Heterotrophic organisms do not require The middle shelf environment is characterised by light; these biota being independent of water depth and abundant hyaline, lamellar, perforate larger foraminifera light are often associated with greater depth and lower and smaller perforate taxa rotaliids; Microfacies E, F, G, water energy Pomar a; Brandano and Corda H and I.
Larger perforate forms are represented by According to the nutrient limitation model of Wood Amphistegina, nummulitids Operculina and Heteroste- , this assemblage is dominant during periods of gina and lepidocyclinids Nephrolepidina and Eulepi- increased nutrient supply. The high extension of this facies dina. The most common smaller foraminiferal fauna belt indicates excellent condition for the growth of constituted by Neorotalia.
On the basis of sedimentological and paleontological data, Moreover, these foraminifera mainly Heterostegina and a generalised facies model and biota distribution have been Amphistegina live in a tropical —subtropical environment reconstructed Figure 7. The facies model presented here over a wide bathymetric range, but are mainly frequent shows a depth gradient from the inner shelf to outer shelf, between depths of 40 and 70 m Hallock and Glenn ; resulted mostly by a combination of depth and nutrient Hottinger Figure 7.
The middle shelf settings can be divided into a Heterostegina and Amphistegina and the increase in proximal middle shelf and a distal middle shelf. Proximal heterozoan association together with the dominance of middle shelf is characterised by nummulitids, bryozoa, red algae suggest a change from oligotrophic to eutrophic bioclast wackestone —packstone, deposition occur near the condition Brandano and Corda As a result, life FWWB. The distal middle shelf contains lepidocyclinid, history strategies determine how different species respond nummulitids, bioclast, corallinacea packstone and bio- to the nutrient changes.
In the study area, enhanced nutrient clast, bryozoa coralline red algal floatstone— rudstone concentration led to a beginning of high productivity, facies. The outer shelf environment is characterised by reproduction and growth of fast-growing, opportunistic high-bryozoan content Microfacies J and K. The species such as coralline red algae and bryozoans in the abundance of bryozoan in conjunction with the absence benthos and an increase in bioerosion by microborers that of photic organisms indicates an aphotic setting.
Miliolids and small rotaliines as r-mode opportunists with increased population and Discussion reproduction commonly replaced larger symbiont-bearing Temperature and latitude appear to control skeletal grain rotaliines when trophic resources increased Beavington- associations occurring on continental shelves.
A number Penney and Racey Nutrient excess stimulated of classifications can be recognised in modern marine increased competition for space and increased predation carbonate environments on the basis of the biotic and bioerosion; therefore, the biota changed from assemblages.
Lees and Buller and Lees phototrophic animal —plant symbionts to heterotrophic classified the distinctive skeletal grain assemblages along Downloaded By: [Monash University] At: 9 June suspension-feeding animals Hallock and Schlager ; temperature gradients as chlorozoan, chloralgal and Hallock et al.
Fossil foramol. Carannante et al. They introduced the terms on light. Light intensity is considered to be one of several rodalgal and molechfor. Recently, to reduce sediment factors influencing the distribution of symbiont-bearing composition from temperature, James has foraminifera with depth Bassi et al.
Therefore, suggested the terms photozoan and heterozoan associ- reduced water clarity decreases the available depth of the ations to classify carbonate sediments on light euphotic and oligophotic benthic communities including dependency. This rhodalgal association consists mainly of environmental constraints Flugel Life history strategies of large benthic foraminifera are recognised as r-mode opportunists and k-mode specialists.
R-mode opportunists occupy unstable, eutrophic conditions, whereas k-mode strategists harbingers of symbiotic algae are specialised to stable, nutrient-poor environments where symbiont provides the host with their nutritional require- ments Hallock ; Beavington-Penney and Racey K-mode strategists cannot respond competitively when nutrient resources become plentiful due to their slow- maturing, highly specialised and few offspring reproduc- tion Beavington-Penney and Racey and thus become extinct in unstable, nutrient-rich environments Figure 8.
Gradients of trophic resources along the dominant Kumar and Saraswati In the investigated area, the biota.
Along a high nutrient input, the benthonic association decline of nutrient-sensitive coral build-ups and large changes from plant — animal symbioses to benthic plants and benthic foraminifera including Operculina, Lepidocyclina, benthic animals, adopted from Hallock et al. Facies analysis and palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the late The mixed carbonate— siliciclastic deposits of the C oligocene attard member lower coralline limestone formation , member of the Qom Formation is represented by the malta.
A standardized model for tethyan rhodalgal assemblages including bryozoa, coralline red tertiary carbonate ramps. J Geol Soc. Carbonate amounts of photo-dependent biota including large benthic lithofacies as paleolatitude indicators: problems and limitations. Sediment Geol. The prevalence of the rhodalgal Chaproniere GCH. Paleoecology of Oligocene—Miocen larger lithofacies and the decline of the chlorozoan associations Foraminiferida, Australia.
Coleman-Sadd SP. Two stage continental collision and plate driving forces. In the study area, the environment was unstable with Corda L, Brandano M. Aphotic zone carbonate production on a enhanced nutrient supplies which shifted benthonic miocene ramp, central apennines, Italy.
Paleoenvironmental model for Increased nutrient input acted as a major control on the Eocene foraminiferal limestones of the Adriatic carbonate platform characteristics of the resultant carbonate sediment.
Facies Istrian Peninsula. Early miocene benthic foraminifera and 10 microfacies types and 3 subenvironments of deposition biostratigraphy of the Qom formation, Deh Namak, Central Iran.
J Asian Earth Sci. Classification of carbonate rocks according to open shelf carbonate environment. In: Ham WE, editor. Classification of carbonate rocks. Bull Can Petrol Geol. The authors wish to thank the reviewers for their helpful and Flugel E.
Microfacies of carbonate rocks, analysis interpretation constructive comments. We would also like to thank the and application. University of Isfahan for providing financial support. Geel T. Recognition of stratigraphic sequences in carbonate Note platform and slope deposits: empirical models based on microfacies 1. Email: monaseddighi yahoo. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol.
Halfar J, Mutti M. Global dominance of coralline red-algal facies: a response to Miocene oceanographic events. References Hallock P. Fluctuations in the trophic resource continuum: a factor Amirshahkarami M. Distribution of miogypsinoides in the Zagros in global diversity cycles? Basin, in southwest Iran. Hist Biol. Hallock P. Sedimen- consequences to carbonate buildups. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol tary facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation at Palaeoecol.
Chaman-Bolbol, Zagros Basin, Iran.
Hallock P, Glenn EC. Paleoenvironmental model and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Palaios. Formation in southwest Iran. Upper Eocene larger the Nicaraguan Rise: examples of the sensitivity of carbonate foraminiferal—coralline algal facies from the Klokova Mountain sedimentation to excess trophic resources.
Hallock P, Schlager W. Nutrient excess and the demise of coral Bassi D.
Larger foraminiferal and coralline algal facies in an reefs and carbonate platforms. Permian— Colli Berici, north-eastern Italy. Part 1.
Larger foraminifera from the Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol. Ecology of extant nummulitids Ehrenberg Mar Micropaleontol. The integrated section of each region obtained by combining and correlating many measured stratigraphic sections. Correlation is made by direct observation and monitoring in the field. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 44 doi The Lower Cretaceous platform succession is disconformably overlain by Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian platform carbonate succession studied by Tasli et al.
Figure 1. Study analysis The study of the integrated stratigraphy sequences is mainly based on detailed field observations and systematic sampling. It has been used Plumpley's  energy classification for the interpretation.
The limestone classifications of Dunham  and Embry and Klovan's  were used for descriptions. Microfacies of rocks at area of interest In total, thin sections have been studied and seven microfacies types have been defined which are briefly described and interpreted Table 1. These microfacies show a transition and repeat in the vertical and lateral directions in all integrated sections. Ooidal grainstone MF-3, Fig. IOP Conf.